Smith RA, Anderson DJ, Pyrak CL, Preston BD, Gottlieb GS (2009). Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-2: three amino acid changes are sufficient for classwide nucleoside analogue resistance. The Journal of infectious diseases, 199(9), 1323-6. (pubmed) (doi)
Genotypic surveys suggest that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 evolve different sets of mutations in response to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). We used site-directed mutagenesis, culture-based phenotyping, and cell-free assays to determine the resistance profiles conferred by specific amino acid replacements in HIV-2 reverse transcriptase. Although thymidine analogue mutations had no effect on zidovudine sensitivity, the addition of Q151M together with K65R or M184V was sufficient for high-level resistance to both lamivudine and zidovudine in HIV-2, and the combination of K65R, Q151M, and M184V conferred classwide NRTI resistance. These data suggest that current NRTI-based regimens are suboptimal for treating HIV-2 infection.